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The Negro in IllinoisThe WPA Papers$
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Brian Dolinar

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780252037696

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252037696.001.0001

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What Is Africa to Me?

What Is Africa to Me?

Chapter:
(p.194) 24. What Is Africa to Me?
Source:
The Negro in Illinois
Author(s):

Arna Bontemps

Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:10.5406/illinois/9780252037696.003.0024

This chapter examines the rising tide of racial consciousness in Chicago during the early years of the twentieth century. It begins with a discussion of early efforts by Negroes to return to their ancestral homeland, some of them resorting to emigration outside the borders of the United States as a way out. In particular, it considers the influence of Marcus Garvey and his Universal Negro Improvement Association, which splintered into different organizations such as the Peace Movement of Ethiopia and the 49th State Movement in Chicago. The chapter also looks at Garvey's feud with Robert S. Abbott and his visit to the South Side in 1920 before concluding with an account of two organizations that strove to foster racial pride among Chicago Negroes: the Moorish American Science Temple and the Nation of Islam.

Keywords:   racial pride, Chicago, Negroes, emigration, Marcus Garvey, Universal Negro Improvement Association, 49th State Movement, Robert S. Abbott, Moorish American Science Temple, Nation of Islam

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