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In Defense of JusticeJoseph Kurihara and the Japanese American Struggle for Equality$
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Eileen H. Tamura

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780252037788

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252037788.001.0001

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Turmoil at Tule

Turmoil at Tule

Chapter:
(p.96) Chapter 7 Turmoil at Tule
Source:
In Defense of Justice
Author(s):

Eileen H. Tamura

Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:10.5406/illinois/9780252037788.003.0008

This chapter focuses on the Tule Lake concentration camp. Construction of the camp began in April 1942; in late May, five hundred Japanese American volunteers from the temporary detention camps at Portland and Puyallup arrived to help set up the camp. They were soon joined by Nikkei assigned to Tule Lake in the original peopling of the concentration camps. Within months, discontent over poor food and substandard living and farm-working conditions led to protests and strikes. This early discord escalated into a crisis during the loyalty-questionnaire fiasco of February 1943, which caused “fear, confusion, and utter chaos” among the Nikkei and resulted in the label of “disloyal” for those who gave “no” answers to one or both of the two contentious questions about their national loyalties or who refused to answer the questions.

Keywords:   Tule Lake concentration camp, Japanese American volunteers, Nikkei, loyalty-questionnaire fiasco, national loyalties

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