Filipino Ethnic Minister Interactions with the Plantation Community
This chapter examines the multiple roles that Philippine Protestant ethnic ministers such as Flaviano M. Santa Ana filled in Hawaiian plantation communities. Hawaiʻi's sugar plantations cut worker wages up to 20 percent due to the low value of sugar in 1921. Intracolonial Filipino laborers, who were already struggling to save enough of their salary to send monetary remittances to their loved ones in the Philippines, became upset at the change in wage scale and went on strike from 1924 to 1925. This labor stoppage, known as the Filipino Piecemeal Sugar Strike, was one of the largest Filipino labor strikes in Hawaiʻi, as well as one of the most legally aggressive reactions by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association during the first half of the twentieth century. This chapter considers how Filipino Protestant pastors at the Olaʻa plantation who were working for the Hawaiian Evangelical Association became middlemen for migrant laborers, sugar plantation management, and the Protestant church in the islands. It shows that these middlemen's positions of power were always tenuous and questioned by Filipinos.
Keywords: sugar plantations, Flaviano M. Santa Ana, Hawaiʻi, Filipino laborers, Filipino Piecemeal Sugar Strike, Filipino labor strikes, Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association, Protestant pastors, Hawaiian Evangelical Association, Protestant church
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