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The Latina/o Midwest Reader$
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Omar Valerio-Jiménez, Santiago R. Vaquera-Vásquez, and Claire F. Fox

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780252041211

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.5622/illinois/9780252041211.001.0001

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Latina/o Immigration before 1965

Latina/o Immigration before 1965

Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago

Chapter:
(p.85) Latina/o Immigration before 1965
Source:
The Latina/o Midwest Reader
Author(s):

Lilia Fernández

Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:10.5622/illinois/9780252041211.003.0006

This essay examines the migration of Mexican immigrants, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans to Chicago in the 1940s and 1950s, long before the more widely recognized post-1965 immigration to the U.S. from Latin America. It argues that this pre-1965 migration to the Midwest was significant and played a critical role in establishing communities that would receive later migrants. In fact, by 1970, the city of Chicago officially counted nearly a quarter of a million Hispanics or Latinos in that year’s census. The essay examines how these populations became racialized as “non-white” in employment, housing, and the local enforcement and perceptions surrounding immigration policy.

Keywords:   Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican immigrants, Racialization, Employment Discrimination, Housing Discrimination, Immigration Enforcement, Operation Wetback, Chicago, Latino communities

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