This concluding chapter studies how Democratic Mayor Carter Harrison's leadership created a new regime—a set of formal and informal governing institutions linking state and civil society—that endured into the Progressive Era. Harrison brought coordination and centralization to the disparate governments of the city and county, not through altering their formal structures, but through a disciplined political party. Meanwhile, his Democrats represented on the local level an updating of the antebellum party state, or “patronage democracy.” Arising to full prominence in the 1840s, patronage democracy witnessed the rise of a new elite of professional politicians—not local notables prominent for their wealth or family status—who manned both the party apparatus and public administration within an electoral democracy and an industrializing economy.
Keywords: Carter Harrison, governing institutions, civil society, Progressive Era, antebellum party state, patronage democracy, professional politicians, public administration, electoral democracy, industrializing economy
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