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Qualifying TimesPoints of Change in U.S. Women's Sport$
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Jaime Schultz

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780252038167

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252038167.001.0001

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Women’s Sport and Questionable Sex

Women’s Sport and Questionable Sex

(p.103) 4. Women’s Sport and Questionable Sex
Qualifying Times

Jaime Schultz

University of Illinois Press

This chapter explores how leaders of several international athletic federations worked to quell anxieties about “manly” women competitors by instituting “sex-testing” policies to verify the femaleness of female athletes. Purporting to safeguard women's sport and its participants, the tests have too often disadvantaged women and served as a powerful form of social control that encouraged normative femininity in the context of sport. Although most organizations have since declared an end to sex-testing in their official policies, new forms of surveillance and detection continue to define who counts as a woman in the context of sport. For better or worse, the introduction of the sex-test signified that women's sports were on the rise, and in the 1970s American women went through what many felt was an athletic revolution.

Keywords:   manly women, sex-testing, femaleness, female athletes, normative femininity, American women, athletic revolution

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