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Qualifying TimesPoints of Change in U.S. Women's Sport$
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Jaime Schultz

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780252038167

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252038167.001.0001

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Women’s Sport and Questionable Sex

Women’s Sport and Questionable Sex

Chapter:
(p.103) 4. Women’s Sport and Questionable Sex
Source:
Qualifying Times
Author(s):

Jaime Schultz

Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:10.5406/illinois/9780252038167.003.0005

This chapter explores how leaders of several international athletic federations worked to quell anxieties about “manly” women competitors by instituting “sex-testing” policies to verify the femaleness of female athletes. Purporting to safeguard women's sport and its participants, the tests have too often disadvantaged women and served as a powerful form of social control that encouraged normative femininity in the context of sport. Although most organizations have since declared an end to sex-testing in their official policies, new forms of surveillance and detection continue to define who counts as a woman in the context of sport. For better or worse, the introduction of the sex-test signified that women's sports were on the rise, and in the 1970s American women went through what many felt was an athletic revolution.

Keywords:   manly women, sex-testing, femaleness, female athletes, normative femininity, American women, athletic revolution

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