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African Americans in U.S. Foreign PolicyFrom the Era of Frederick Douglass to the Age of Obama$
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Linda Heywood, Allison Blakely, Charles Stith, and Joshua C. Yesnowitz

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780252038877

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252038877.001.0001

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Blacks in the U.S. Diplomatic and Consular Services, 1869–1924

Blacks in the U.S. Diplomatic and Consular Services, 1869–1924

(p.13) 1 Blacks in the U.S. Diplomatic and Consular Services, 1869–1924
African Americans in U.S. Foreign Policy

Allison Blakely

University of Illinois Press

This chapter surveys the experiences of black Americans in the early foreign service. The U.S. Department of State was the first major government department to appoint blacks to positions of prestige. This generation included John L. Waller, Mifflin Wistar Gibbs, and Richard T. Greener, as well as career officer William Henry Hunt. Such progressivism occurred in an atmosphere of pervasive racism and reflected not only the varying interests of the two major political parties but also the growing disenfranchisement of blacks through the Jim Crow laws. Ultimately, these early officers faced personal dilemmas born out of contrasting experiences abroad and at home.

Keywords:   African Americans, foreign service, diplomacy, State Department, L. Waller, Mifflin Wistar Gibbs, Richard T. Greener, William Henry Hunt, diplomats

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