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African Americans in U.S. Foreign PolicyFrom the Era of Frederick Douglass to the Age of Obama$
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Linda Heywood, Allison Blakely, Charles Stith, and Joshua C. Yesnowitz

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780252038877

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252038877.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM ILLINOIS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.illinois.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Illinois University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ISO for personal use.date: 26 June 2022

White Shame/Black Agency

White Shame/Black Agency

Race as a Weapon in Post–World War I Diplomacy

(p.109) 5 White Shame/Black Agency
African Americans in U.S. Foreign Policy

Vera Ingrid Grant

University of Illinois Press

This chapter examines the role of race in the transformation of the former German enemy into an American friend that took place in the Rhineland occupation zone between 1918 and 1923. It proposes that in the crucible of the occupation zone, dissimilar and heightened American and German understandings and practices of race converged with usual postwar indignities of brutality, revenge, and survival. What emerged was a transformed global pattern of racial perspectives and reconciled alliances. W. E. B. Du Bois named this reorganization of racial discourse “the discovery of personal whiteness among the world's peoples.” The chapter proposes that another stream of interactions bound Germans and Americans together: they grappled with their perceptions of interior “racialized” enemies, deepened their crafting of white supremacy, and expressed similar interior visions while at work on their world visions.

Keywords:   Germany, American foreign policy, Rhineland occupation, race, white supremacy, racism

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