This concluding chapter argues that in the end, the Congress of Industrial Organizations' (CIO) Southern Organizing Campaign failed for a number of reasons—employer intransigence, repression by local authorities, public opposition, racism, anti-Communism, CIO strategies, and the improving economic conditions of workers all contributed. Southern evangelical Protestantism also played a part, but not the one typically described in the historical scholarship. The larger lesson is that social movements of any sort and at any time should begin by understanding the culture of the people that they hope will follow their lead. Understanding that only some sort of faith will generally move people to take chances, those social movements should strive to grasp the central elements of that faith.
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