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The Third SectorCommunity Organizations, NGOs, and Nonprofits$
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Meghan Elizabeth Kallman and Terry Nichols Clark

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780252040436

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252040436.001.0001

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(p.105) 3. France
The Third Sector

Meghan Elizabeth Kallman

Terry Nichols Clark

Cary Wu

Jean Yen-Chun Lin

University of Illinois Press

This chapter examines the development and infrastructure of the third sector in France. The nonprofit sector in France (also referred to as the “social economy”) emerged out of an ideological struggle between the Catholic Church and republicanism over the rights of the individual. Until 1901, individuals had few legal opportunities to even associate in groups; associations were only permitted under specific conditions set by the government. The genesis of the French social economy has been marked by a strong statist presence in which the institutional logic of bureaucracy was most prominent. After providing an overview of the legal structure and evolution of the French third sector, this chapter considers the French social economy as well as funding in the third sector. It also presents case studies to illustrate the tendency of the French nonprofit sector to move from a strong statist position to a solidaristic and activist approach.

Keywords:   third sector, France, nonprofit sector, social economy, bureaucracy, legal structure, funding

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