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A Century of TransnationalismImmigrants and Their Homeland Connections$
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Nancy L Green and Roger Waldinger

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780252040443

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252040443.001.0001

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Transnationalism and the Emergence of the Modern Chinese State

Transnationalism and the Emergence of the Modern Chinese State

National Rejuvenation and the Ascendance of Foreign-Educated Elites (Liuxuesheng)

(p.132) Chapter 5 Transnationalism and the Emergence of the Modern Chinese State
A Century of Transnationalism

Madeline Y. Hsu

University of Illinois Press

This chapter tracks the early evolution of ideologies and institutions for Chinese study-abroad programs. Transnationalism has characterized the emergence of Chinese modernity, a process framed by China's struggles to manage foreign encroachments along with domestic crises in part through the rapid acquisition and adaptation of western science and technology, political philosophies and institutions, military strategies, and cultural forms. Since the 1870s, Chinese government programs for study abroad have aimed to provide such expertise, strategic and institutional practices that expanded and grew in influence during the twentieth century. A succession of Chinese regimes have sought to direct the activities of Chinese studying abroad (liuxuesheng) as key resources to develop industry and a modern infrastructure for China's economy. As China has modernized by adapting western models across the twentieth century, returned liuxuesheng have wielded significant influence as interpreters of western knowledge, technology, institutions, and ideals in application to Chinese agendas, and have significantly shaped both the Nationalist and Communist parties and constituted a considerable technocratic elite directing economic and educational developments.

Keywords:   China, transnationalism, migration, study-abroad programs, education policy

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