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A Century of TransnationalismImmigrants and Their Homeland Connections$
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Nancy L Green and Roger Waldinger

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780252040443

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252040443.001.0001

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Periodizing Indian Organizational Transnationalism in the United Kingdom

Periodizing Indian Organizational Transnationalism in the United Kingdom

(p.209) Chapter 8 Periodizing Indian Organizational Transnationalism in the United Kingdom
A Century of Transnationalism

Thomas Lacroix

University of Illinois Press

This chapter discusses the long-term evolution of the Indian organizational field in the United Kingdom and its transnational extensions. It distinguishes four main periods. The first one, from 1947 (year of India's independence) until the early sixties is the age of pioneer migrants, characterized by the informality of migrant organizations, except for a handful of large political associations supporting the fight for independence in the origin country. The second period is the one of the structuration of the organizational field at the local and national levels. The third period, during the eighties, is a period of transition marked by political unrest that affected Punjab between 1984 and 1992, and the surge of the Khalistani movement (a movement supportive of Punjab independence during the Indo-Punjab conflict in the late nineties). The fourth and last period started with the end of the conflict in Punjab and the outbreak of the financial crisis in India, which led the Indian government to adopt a new behavior toward its diaspora. Throughout this historical account, the intent is to elicit the factors that underpin the evolution of migrant organizational fields. The chapter links the main periods of the organizational life not only to the features of the Indian community, but also to its national and international context. Particular attention is paid to the following factors: composition and orientation of immigrant flows; the class and ethnic characteristics of the Indian population and their evolution over time; the social movements and conflicts in the host and origin settings; and the policies implemented by sending and receiving states.

Keywords:   United Kingdom, Indian organizations, transnationalism, immigrant flows, Indian migrants, Indian community, Punjab, Khalistani movement

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