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Slavery at SeaTerror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle Passage$
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Sowande' M. Mustakeem

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780252040559

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.5406/illinois/9780252040559.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM ILLINOIS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.illinois.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Illinois University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ISO for personal use.date: 17 September 2021

Waves of Calamity

Waves of Calamity

(p.19) 1 Waves of Calamity
Slavery at Sea

Sowande' M. Mustakeem

University of Illinois Press

This chapter examines how human beings were transformed into chattel property amid business ventures conducted on the African side of the Atlantic Ocean. More specifically, it considers how foreign white traders, more than any customers, may have come into a ready system of servitude already existent throughout West Africa; they arrived as business partners in the human manufacturing process with a shared commercial vision that over time manifested in the evolution of race and chattel slavery. The chapter begins with a discussion of the complicated system of racial and cultural biases, cooperation, and trickery acted out between African merchants, brokers, and foreign white sailors. It then explains how such connections paved the way for an evolving commercial enterprise that relied upon the buying and selling of black bodies. It also shows how these entrepreneurial pursuits created an opportunity to forcibly move slaves into the domain of coastal sales, ushering in the first phase in the operation of the Atlantic human manufacturing process—warehousing.

Keywords:   warehousing, Atlantic Ocean, foreign white traders, West Africa, human manufacturing process, chattel slavery, African merchants, foreign white sailors, black bodies, slaves

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