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The Latina/o Midwest Reader$
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Omar Valerio-Jiménez, Santiago R. Vaquera-Vásquez, and Claire F. Fox

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780252041211

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.5622/illinois/9780252041211.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM ILLINOIS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.illinois.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Illinois University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ISO for personal use.date: 26 June 2022

Latina/o Immigration before 1965

Latina/o Immigration before 1965

Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago

(p.85) Latina/o Immigration before 1965
The Latina/o Midwest Reader

Lilia Fernández

University of Illinois Press

This essay examines the migration of Mexican immigrants, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans to Chicago in the 1940s and 1950s, long before the more widely recognized post-1965 immigration to the U.S. from Latin America. It argues that this pre-1965 migration to the Midwest was significant and played a critical role in establishing communities that would receive later migrants. In fact, by 1970, the city of Chicago officially counted nearly a quarter of a million Hispanics or Latinos in that year’s census. The essay examines how these populations became racialized as “non-white” in employment, housing, and the local enforcement and perceptions surrounding immigration policy.

Keywords:   Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican immigrants, Racialization, Employment Discrimination, Housing Discrimination, Immigration Enforcement, Operation Wetback, Chicago, Latino communities

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