This chapter outlines the foundations that shaped the racial liberalism of American liberal Protestants from the late nineteenth century through World War II. Included is an overview of their missionary service with the Japan YMCA, the modernist theology that inspired their social reform, and the role emerging trends in the social sciences played in shaping their views on race and assimilation in the early 1900s. The chapter also introduces the impact racial liberalism had on Asian North Americans who embraced assimilation and acculturation in the 1920s and 1930s as the best solution to prevent racial discrimination.
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