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The Mexican Revolution in ChicagoImmigration Politics from the Early Twentieth Century to the Cold War$

John H. Flores

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780252041808

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.5622/illinois/9780252041808.001.0001

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(p.167) Appendix

(p.167) Appendix

On Naturalization Records

Source:
The Mexican Revolution in Chicago
Author(s):

John H. Flores

Publisher:
University of Illinois Press

One of the most influential studies of Mexican identity and assimilation is Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 by George J. Sanchez. In this landmark monograph, Sanchez surveyed the records of 2,238 Mexicans who applied for U.S. citizenship in the Federal District Court of Los Angeles before 1940.1 To assess Mexican politics and assimilation in the Chicago area, I collected the records of every Spanish-speaking immigrant who applied for U.S. citizenship in the Federal District Court of Chicago between 1900 and 1940 and the Circuit Court of Cook County between 1906 and 1929. Through these applications for naturalization, I created a naturalization census of 3,110 Spanish-speaking immigrants (1,982 federal records and 1,128 county records). To date, this is the largest and most inclusive historical census of Hispanic naturalization in the United States.

While the majority of Mexican immigrants in Los Angeles and Chicago never applied for naturalization, 1,893 Mexicans applied for U.S. citizenship in Chicago between 1900 and 1940. Naturalization records are incredibly valuable in ascertaining the characteristics of the Mexicans who chose to establish themselves in the United States. Censuses, parish registers, city directories, and marriage licenses can tell us much about the Mexican population of a particular place and time, but these sources rarely distinguish between Mexicans who were sojourning in the United States and those who were seeking permanent residence. U.S. and Mexican government records reveal that Mexican immigrant communities were in an incredible state of flux during the first half of the twentieth century. More than one million Mexicans entered the United States between 1900 and 1929. Thousands of Mexicans repatriated during the recession of 1920; more than half a million Mexicans repatriated or were deported during the Great Depression; (p.168) and more than one million Mexicans were deported during the Cold War. Mexican government sources allude to an even higher volume of to-and-from migration during these years. For example, while the U.S. government claims that only 3,572 Mexicans left the United States for Mexico in 1920, Mexican sources cite an astounding 105,834 Mexican returnees in this same year.2 Unlike most sources that do not distinguish between Mexican sojourners, repatriates, and deportees, naturalization records provide researchers with detailed information about the subset of the total Mexican population that was seeking to permanently settle in the United States.

Table 1 State of origin of Mexican naturalizers in Chicago, 1900–1940

Mexican states

Percent (number)

Guanajuato

16.7 (274)

Distrito Federal

14.4 (237)

Jalisco

13.2 (217)

Michoacán

10.0 (164)

Nuevo León

6.2 (102)

Chihuahua

5.7 (95)

Zacatecas

5.4 (89)

Coahuila

4.5 (74)

San Luis Potosí

4.3 (71)

Durango

3.8 (63)

Aguascalientes

2.0 (34)

Tamaulipas

1.7 (29)

Puebla

1.7 (28)

Veracruz

1.6 (27)

Oaxaca

1.2 (20)

Yucatán

0.9 (16)

Sonora

0.9 (15)

Mexico State

0.8 (14)

Querétaro

0.7 (13)

Hidalgo

0.7 (12)

Chiapas

0.6 (11)

Nayarit

0.4 (7)

Tabasco

0.3 (6)

Baja California

0.2 (4)

Colima

0.2 (4)

Morelos

0.2 (4)

Guerrero

0.2 (3)

Campeche

0.1 (2)

Sinaloa

0.1 (2)

Tlaxcala

<0.1 (1)

Baja California Sur

0.0 (0)

Quintana Roo

0.0 (0)

Note: This table includes 1,638 Mexican naturalizers, 140 of whom are Mexican women. This table excludes Mexican naturalizers who did not list a state of origin on their naturalization applications. Percentages may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

(p.169) Table 2 Ports of entry of Mexican naturalizers to Chicago

U.S. ports

Mexican border town

Percent (number)

Land ports

Laredo, TX

Nuevo Laredo, Tam.

55.7 (696)

El Paso, TX

Ciudad Juárez, Chih.

27.0 (338)

Eagle Pass, TX

Piedras Negras, Coah.

6.8 (86)

Brownsville, TX

Matamoros, Tam.

2.4 (30)

Hidalgo, TX

Reynosa, Tam.

0.6 (8)

Del Rio, TX

Ciudad Acuña, Coah.

0.5 (7)

Detroit, MI

0.4 (5)

Nogales, AZ

Nogales, Son.

0.4 (5)

Rio Grande City, TX

Ciudad Camargo

0.3 (4)

Dallas, TX

Tam.

0.2 (3)

Douglas, AZ

0.2 (3)

Calexico, CA

Agua Prieta, Son.

<0.1 (1)

Chicago, IL

Mexicali, Baja Cal.

<0.1 (1)

Columbus, NM

<0.1 (1)

Fort Worth, TX

Puerto Palomas, Chi.

<0.1 (1)

Kansas City, MO

<0.1 (1)

Naco, AZ

<0.1 (1)

Noyes, MN

Naco, Son.

<0.1 (1)

Port Huron, MI

<0.1 (1)

Portal, ND

<0.1 (1)

Presidio, TX

<0.1 (1)

Roma, TX

Manuel Ojinaga, Chi. Ciudad Miguel Alaman, Tam.

<0.1 (1)

Sea ports

New York, NY

1.9 (24)

New Orleans, LA

1.1 (14)

Los Angeles, CA

0.2 (3)

Houston, TX

0.1 (2)

San Francisco, CA

0.1 (2)

Tampa, FL

0.1 (2)

Texas City, TX

0.1 (2)

Galveston, TX

<0.1 (1)

Key West, FL

<0.1 (1)

Port Arthur, TX

<0.1 (1)

Total listed ports of entry

1,248

Note: This table excludes Mexican naturalizers who did not list a port of entry on their naturalization applications. A dashed line indicates an empty cell. Percentages may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

(p.170) Table 3 The migrant journey of Mexican naturalizers to Chicago, 1900-1940

Mexican naturalizers

Migration directly from town or city of birth

Migration from state of birth (but not same birth town or city)

Migration from region of birth

Migration from regions north of region of birth

Migration from regions south of region of birth

100% (1,503)

39% (584)

17% (256)

11% (168)

26% (390)

7% (105)

Note: This table excludes Mexican naturalizers who did not list a place of birth on their naturalization applications.

Table 4 Regional origins of Mexican naturalizers in Chicago who crossed into the United States as children and as adults, 1900-1940

Nationality (sample size)

Border states and northwestern Mexico

Central Mexico

Bajio

North-central Mexico

Southern Mexico

Western Mexico

Mexican, 1900-1920 (166)1

36% (60)

27% (44)

19% (32)

8% (13)

8% (13)

2% (4)

Mexican, 1921-30 (500)2

23% (115)

26% (130)

37% (186)

7% (37)

6% (29)

1% (3)

Mexican, 1931-40 (923)3

21% (196)

12% (114)

50% (461)

12% (109)

4% (40)

1% (3)

Total Mexican, 1900-1940 (1,638)4

23% (384)

18% (296)

43% (702)

10% (160)

5% (85)

1% (11)

Note: This table excludes naturalizers who did not list a region of origin on their naturalization applications. My tables divide Mexico's political geography in the following order: the border states and northwestern Mexico include Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Sonora, Sinaloa, and Tamaulipas; the Bajío includes Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacán, and Querétaro; north-central Mexico includes San Luis Potosí and Zacatecas; western Mexico includes Colima and Nayarit; central Mexico includes the Distrito Federal, Hidalgo, Mexico State, Morelos, Puebla, and Tlaxcala; and southern Mexico includes Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, and Yucatán.

(1.) This sample includes two Mexican women.

(2.) This sample includes twenty-nine Mexican women.

(3.) This sample includes 117 Mexican women.

(4.) This sample includes 158 Mexican women and 49 Mexicans who applied for naturalization in Chicago but whose specific year of application between 1900 and 1940 could not be determined.

(p.171) Table 5 Regional origins of Mexican naturalizers in Chicago who first crossed into the United States as adults, 1900-1940

Nationality (sample size)

Border states and northwestern Mexico

Central Mexico

Bajío

North-central Mexico

Southern Mexico

Western Mexico

Mexican, 1900-1920 (114)1

32% (37)

29% (33)

22% (25)

7% (8)

7% (8)

3% (3)

Mexican, 1921-30 (346)2

19% (67)

27% (92)

39% (135)

8% (28)

6% (22)

1% (2)

Mexican, 1931-40 (647)3

19% (121)

13% (84)

52% (334)

12% (79)

4% (27)

less than 1% (2)

Total Mexican, 1900-1940 (1,127)4

20% (228)

19% (213)

45% (504)

10% (115)

5% (59)

1% (8)

Note: This table excludes naturalizers who did not list a state of origin on their naturalization applications and excludes those who included a state of origin but immigrated to the United States before the age of nineteen. Table 4 includes the regional origins of all age groups.

(1.) This sample includes one Mexican woman.

(2.) This sample includes twenty Mexican women.

(3.) This sample includes seventy-one Mexican women. Percentages exceed 100 percent because of rounding.

(4.) This sample includes ninety-eight Mexican women and twenty-nine Mexicans who applied for naturalization in Chicago but whose specific year of application between 1900 and 1940 could not be determined.

Table 6 Comparison of regional origins of Mexican naturalizers in Chicago and Los Angeles who first crossed into the United States as adults

Nationality (sample size)

Border states and northwestern Mexico

Central Mexico

Bajío

North-central Mexico

Southern Mexico

Western Mexico

Mexicans to Chicago, 1900-1940 (1,127)

20% (228)

19% (213)

45% (504)

10% (115)

5% (59)

1% (8)

Mexicans to Los Angeles before 1940 (1,111)

44% (494)

11% (124)

26% (289)

12% (137)

4% (48)

2% (19)

Note: The Los Angeles table includes 1,111 adult male Mexican naturalizers and was adapted from data in Sanchez, Becoming Mexican American, table 5, 46. The Chicago table includes ninety-eight Mexican women, and for comparative purposes it includes only those Mexican naturalizers who immigrated to the United States as adults (after the age of nineteen). Percentages may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

(p.172) Table 7 Regional origins of non-Mexican Hispanic naturalizers in Chicago, 1900–1940

Nationality (sample size)

State, province, or department

Spanish

Asturias

Madrid

Barcelona

A Coruna

Lugo

(377)

29% (109)

8% (30)

7% (27)

6% (24)

5% (17)

Cuban

Havana

Matanzas

Villa Clara

Cienfuegos

Guantánamo

(131)

44% (56)

14% (18)

12% (16)

9% (12)

5% (7)

Argentine

Buenos Aires

Santa Fe

Entre Ríos

Misiones

Mendoza

(115)

66% (76)

15% (17)

4% (5)

3% (4)

3% (3)

Nicaraguan

León

Granada

Managua

Río San Juan

Jinotega

(49)

27% (13)

24% (12)

12% (6)

8% (4)

8% (4)

Note: This table includes only the top five regions of origin of non-Mexican Hispanic naturalizers and excludes the immigrants who did not list a region of origin on their naturalization applications. This table also includes 186 Spanish-speaking women (158 Mexican, 5 Spanish, 6 Cuban, 14 Argentine, and 3 Nicaraguan).

Table 8 Age of Mexican migrants at time of first crossing to Chicago, 1900–1940

Age

Male migrants

Female migrants

Total

Child under 13

9%

19%

10%

149

30

179

Adolescent

21%

18%

21%

  13–15

101

10

111

  16–18

261

19

280

Young adult

42%

24%

40%

  19–21

396

19

415

  22–24

319

18

337

Adult

29%

39%

30%

  25–29

253

26

279

  30–39

195

25

220

  40–49

37

4

41

  Over 49

8

6

14

Total

1,719

157

1,876

Note: This table includes 1,876 Mexican naturalizers in Chicago whose age could be determined. Percentages may exceed 100 percent due to rounding.

(p.173) Table 9 Complexion of Mexican naturalizers in Chicago, 1900–1940

Nationality (sample size)

Dark

Medium

Fair

Mexican, 1900–1930 (304)1

69% (209)

9% (27)

22% (68)

Mexican, 1931–40 (1,012)2

80% (809)

6% (60)

14% (143)

Total Mexican, 1900–1940 (1,321)3

77% (1,023)

7% (87)

16% (211)

Note: This table excludes Mexican immigrants whose complexions could not be ascertained from their naturalization applications. The dark category includes 1,023 Mexicans classified as “dark” by immigration officials. The medium category includes Mexicans classified as “medium” (62), “ruddy” (13), “olive” (8), “swarthy” (2), “brunette” (1), and “brown” (1). The fair category includes Mexicans classified as “fair” (188), “light” (12), and “white” (11). This sample also includes 127 Mexican women.

(1.) This sample also includes eleven Mexican women.

(2.) This sample includes 118 Mexican women.

(3.) This sample includes 128 Mexican women and data on five Mexicans whose complexion was listed on their naturalization applications but whose specific year of application between 1900 and 1940 could not be determined.

Table 10 Complexion of Hispanic naturalizers in Chicago, 1900–1940

Hispanic group (sample size)

Dark

Medium

Fair

Mexican (1,321)1

77% (1,023)

7% (87)

16% (211)

Central American (80)2

75% (60)

5% (4)

20% (16)

Caribbean (111)3

67% (74)

9% (10)

24% (27)

South American (222)4

55% (121)

11% (25)

34% (76)

Spaniard (193)5

50% (96)

9% (17)

41% (80)

(1.) The dark category includes the 1,023 Mexicans classified as “dark” by immigration officials. The medium category includes Mexicans classified as “medium” (62), “ruddy” (13), “olive” (8), swarthy (2), “brunette” (1), and “brown” (1). The fair category includes Mexicans classified as “fair” (188), “light” (12), and “white” (11). This sample also includes 127 Mexican women.

(2.) The dark category includes sixty Central Americans classified as “dark.” The medium category includes one “brown,” one “ruddy,” and two “medium” classified Central Americans. The fair category includes all those classified as “fair.” This sample includes thirteen Central American women.

(3.) The dark category includes one “mulatto” classified Caribbean person and seventy-two “dark” classified persons. The medium category includes one “brown” and nine “medium” classified persons. The fair category includes one “light” and twenty-six “fair” classified persons. This sample includes seven women from the Caribbean.

(4.) The fair category includes two “light” and seventy-four “fair” classified South Americans. The medium category includes one “brown,” one “olive,” one “sallow,” four “ruddy,” and eighteen “medium” classified South Americans. The sample includes twenty-two South American women.

(5.) The fair category includes one “white,” four “light,” and seventy-five “fair” classified Spaniards. This sample also includes four Spanish women.

(p.174) Table 11 Occupational structure for Mexican naturalizers in Chicago

High white collar

Low white collar

Total white collar

Skilled blue collar

Semiskilled blue collar

Total skilled and semiskilled blue collar

Unskilled blue collar

Mexican, 1900–1930 (793)1

8% (66)

9% (69)

17% (135)

16% (124)

14% (109)

29% (233)2

54% (425)

Mexican, 1931–40 (802)3

5% (44)

6% (46)

11% (90)

13% (103)

19% (153)

32% (256)

57% (456)

Total Mexican, 1900–1940 (1,645)4

7% (116)

7% (119)

14% (235)

14% (234)

16% (271)

31% (505)5

55% (905)

Note: All occupational tables exclude immigrants who did not list an occupation on their naturalization applications. All occupations were classified in relation to the criteria suggested by Sobek, “Occupations,” http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ISBN-978051113297Ba.ESS.03.1.

(1.) This sample includes twenty-seven Mexican women.

(2.) Percentage is drawn from the raw number.

(3.) This sample includes 117 Mexican women.

(4.) This sample includes 137 Mexican women and 50 Mexicans who applied for naturalization in Chicago but whose specific year of application between 1900 and 1940 could not be definitively determined.

(5.) Percentage is drawn from the raw number.

(p.175) Table 12 Occupational structure for Hispanic naturalizers in Chicago, 1900–1940

Hispanic group (sample size)

White collar

Skilled and semiskilled blue collar

Unskilled blue collar

Mexican (1,645)

14% (235)

31% (505)

55% (905)

Spanish (401)

28% (114)

40% (161)

31% (126)

South American (446)

28% (124)

41% (184)

31% (138)

Central American (138)

37% (51)

35% (48)

28% (39)

Caribbean (147)

35% (52)

41% (61)

23% (34)

Note: What follows is a list of the nationalities and the number of women included within each of the sections of the table: Mexicans (137 women in sample); Spaniards (6 women); South Americans: 172 Brazilians (2 women), 152 Argentines (13 women), 32 Peruvians (0 women), 25 Chileans (3 women), 27 Colombians (1 woman), 4 Ecuadorians (0 women), 12 Uruguayans (0 women), 12 Venezuelans (2 women), 9 Bolivians (1 woman), 1 Paraguayan (0 women); Central Americans: 46 Nicaraguans (3 women), 32 Guatemalans (4 women), 20 Costa Ricans (2 women), 18 Hondurans (1 woman), 15 Panamanians (2 women), 7 Salvadorans (0 women); and Caribbean origin: 137 Cubans (5 women) and 10 Dominicans (3 women). Percentages may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

Table 13 Background of spouse of Mexican migrants, 1900–1940

Background of spouse

Percent (number)

Mexican born

77 (662)

American born

17 (144)

European born

5 (46)

Latin American born (non-Mexican)

1 (10)

Other

Less than 1 (1)

Total

863

Note: This table excludes married and formally married Mexican naturalizers whose naturalization applications omitted the place of birth of their spouses. Percentages may exceed 100 percent because of rounding.

(p.176) Table 14 Family size of various types of Mexican marriages, 1900–1940

Type of marriage

No children

One or two children

Three to five children

Six to eight children

More than eight children

Mexican-born spouse

158

178

218

96

12

American-born spouse

63

64

14

3

European-born spouse

22

15

9

Latin American–born spouse (non-Mexican)

6

3

1

Other

1

Total

249

260

242

100

12

Note: This table is based on a sample of 863 married Mexican naturalizers in Chicago between the years 1900 and 1940.

(p.177) Table 15 Place of birth of Mexican children in Chicago, 1900–1940

Place of birth

Before 1910

Decade of birth

1931–40

Number

1910–20

1921–30

(percentage)

Illinois

1

16

178

105

300 (48.2)

Texas

3

20

20

3

46 (7.4)

Kansas

1

7

9

1

18 (2.9)

Iowa

3

2

1

6 (1.0)

Missouri

2

2

2

6 (1.0)

New Mexico

1

5

6 (1.0)

Oklahoma

4

1

5 (0.8)

Colorado

1

3

4 (0.6)

Michigan

3

1

4 (0.6)

Nebraska

2

2

4 (0.6)

California

2

1

3 (0.5)

Wyoming

3

3 (0.5)

Arizona

2

2 (0.3)

Wisconsin

1

1

2 (0.3)

Alabama

1

1 (0.2)

Montana

1

1 (0.2)

New York

1

1 (0.2)

Ohio

1

1 (0.2)

Oregon

1

1 (0.2)

Pennsylvania

1

1 (0.2)

Mexico

31

96

59

1

187 (30.0)

Unknown

10

9

2

21 (3.4)

Total

37

170

299

117

623

Note: A dash indicates an empty cell. Percentages may exceed 100 percent because of rounding.

(p.178) Table 16 Spanish-speaking immigrant societies in metropolitan Chicago, 1900-1940

Name of immigrant society

Community area

Active participants

Affiliated press

Lux en Umbra

Near West Side

Luis Álvares del Castillo, Ruben Flores, Lisando Díaz, Malesio Espinoza, Ignacio Guerrero, Jose Reyes, Enrique Rincon, Ernesto Uribe, Salvador Galvan, Julio Óliva de Armas, Carlos Gurrola, Carlos Palacios Roji, Carlo Morales

México: El Semario de la Patria

La Cruz Azul Mexicana of Chicago

Near West Side and South Chicago

Oscar G. Carrera, Jana R. de Pena, Carlos Roberts, Carlota Gonzalez, Eva A. de Carrera, Mr. J. Pena, Maria Luisa Sanchez, Mercedes Rios, Juana Pena, Guadalupe Urrola, Carlos Roberts, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Eloisa de la Paz, Milla Dominguez, Gertrudis Galindo, Carolina Lona

Sociedad Feminil Mexicana

Near West Side

F. G. de Barron, Maria Jimenez, Virjinia Chavez, Antonia Aquilar, Elena Flores de Lovera, Maria de Jesus Morales, Maria Cervantes, Lala Vilareal, Lala Morales, Maria de la Luz Morales

Feminil Excelsior Club

P. M. de Cornejo, H. R. de Cornejo, Elvira Ramirez, Felipe de la Rosa

La Alianza Fraternal Mexicana

Near West Side

Julian X. Mondragon, Alfredo Miranda, Guillermo Baquero O'Neill, Leon Lira, Jesus Maldonado, Manuel Aguilar, Joaquin Aguilar, Fernando Moreno

La Alianza

Feminine Club IBIS

South Chicago

Josefina Cerda, Concepcion Jasquez, Maria Barragan, Alfredo R. Quintero

El Círculo de Obreros Católicos San José

East Chicago, Indiana

Benjamin Figueroa, Francisco Figueroa, Carlos Figueroa, Pedro Pacheco, J. Jesus Cortez, Ignacio Gonzalez, Luis Zuniga Sanchez, Juan de la Rosa, and Jose Gonzalez

El Amigo del Hogar

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Society

South Chicago

Bernardo Pastor, Salvador Trejo, Francisco Avilez, Louis A. Acosta, Jose B. Flores

La Voz de México1

Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez Club

Douglas Park

Refugio Alaniz, Maria G. de Mejia, Maria del Rosario, Maria Mariscal, Guadalupe Guerrero

Caballeros de Guadalupe

South Chicago (based out of Our Lady of Guadalupe Church)

Gumaro Ortiz, Pedro Luna, E. Aragon

(p.179) Las Hijas de Maria

South Chicago (based out of Our Lady of Guadalupe Church)

Frente Popular Mexicano of Chicago

Near West Side, Back of the Yards & South Chicago

Nicholas M. Hernandez, Henrique Venegas, Jesus Flores, Fidencio Moreno, A. Escamilla, Refugio Roman Martinez, Lupe Marshall, Jose Lazaro, and Venustiano Rodriquez

La Defensa

La Sociedad Española of Chicago and La Sociedad Española of Gary, Indiana (Society of Spaniards)

Near West Side of Chicago and Gary, Indiana

Miguel Garriga, Faustino Arias, Jose Gonzalez Perez, Jesus Fernandez, Manuel Vega, Jose Arguelles, Alfonso Barcena, Edelmiro Rodriguez Jose Gonzalez, Antonio Perez, Alfonso Bouzo, Luciano Garcia, Miguel Puig, Arturo Garcia, Jose Montos, Frank Rodriguez, Manuel Rodriguez

Unión Benéfica Española

Jose Amigo, Francisco Abeldua, Pedro Ballesteros, Juan Serrano, Francisco Garcia, Alfredo Quintana, Jose Varela, Jose Cendon

Spanish Society American-Spanish League

Faustino Arias, E. Rodriguez, A. Bouzo, J. Aguilar Enrique de Luna, Tiburcio Vela, Cruz Vasque Otilio Velasquez

Club Cultural Latino Americano

Near West Side

R. Gonzalez, Julio Velez, Francisco Zuniga, J. Jesus Flores, Mr. Cornello, Abraham Gomez, Lupe Plaza, Mr. Santiago, Maria Louisa Garilay Fidel Paramo, Rosario A. de Flores

Committee Against Alcohol, affiliated with the Great National Committee Against Alcoholism

South Chicago

Rafael Aveleyra, F. Gonzalez, Rafael G. Guardado, Eliud Garcia Trevino, Ruben Valasco, Manuel Garcia, Miguel Nieto, Carlos M. Gurrola

Mexican Fraternal Society

South Chicago

Enrique Garcia, Sabino B. Hernandez, P. Negrete, M. Sifuentes, Francisco Arias, J. M. Mireles, Sabino B. Hernandez

Mexican Confederation of Societies

Jose Valdez, J. V. Herrera, Louis Acosta, Francisco Cabrera, Epigmenio Prado Mrs. B. de Blanquete

Young Boys Methodist League

Pedro Gogora, Jose Cardenas, Samuel Ramirez, Dionisio Munoz, Jeronimo Vaca, Robert Garcia

(p.180) Sociedad Mutualista Fraternal Mexicana

Lincoln Park

Aureliano Guerra, Catarino Moren, Refugio Moreno, Octaviano Hernandez, Pedro Cuellar, Graciano Carrillo, Sabino Hernandez, Pedro Blanco

Sociedad Plutarco Elias Calles

South Chicago

Agustin Arteaga, Ramon Silva, Jesus Gonzalez, Antonio G. Garcia, Leopoldo Escobarete, Jesus Garcia

Alas Rojas Sports and Social Club

Near West Side

Pepe Rivera, Cuquita Delago, Rosita Herrera, Margot Maldonado, Laurita Lopez, Beatriz Ibarra, Francis Garces, Lacha Lopez

El Mexicano

Club Deportivo Yaquis

South Chicago

Eduardo Peralta, Manuel Garcia, Miguel Hernandez, Lindro Areas, Jose Diaz, Salvador Vallos, Carlos Maravilla

Club Deportivo Excelsior

South Chicago

Luis Cornejo, Fernando Cornejo, Manuel Garay

Sportive Club Monterrey

South Chicago

Isabel Castro, Alberto Cueller, Justo M. Alvarado, Rafael Cueller, Nicolas Barbosa, Antonio Maravilla

Note: A dash indicates an empty cell. Spanish-speaking immigrants also formed the Association Panamericana, Latin American Club, Club Cultural Latino Americano, Sociedad Fraternal Mexicana Logia 170 of the Alianza Hispano-América, United Mexican Clubs, Pro-Mexico Society, Pro-Fiesta Patrias Committee, Fraternal Educational Melchor Ocampo Club, Ignacio Altamirano Educational Club, El Club Educativo de Trabajadores, Benito Juárez Educational Club, Club Mamerto, Cuauhtemoc Club, Anahuac Club, Comité Pro Vasconcelos, Vicente Lombardo Toledono Club, Lázaro Cárdenas Club, Club of Mexican Workers Local 32, Camp Emilio Carranza No. 448 of the Woodmen of the World, Spanish American Anti-alcoholic Committee, La Sociedad Fraternal Mexicana of South Deering, Enterprise Corona, Club 333, Club Oro y Sol, Club Ideal, Club Recreativor 33, Necaxa, Fraternal Evolution, Obreros Guadalupanos Club, Asociación Cristinana de Jovenes Mexicanos (ACJM), Esfuerzo Cristinano, Security and Benefit Association Latin Council No. 4045, Mexican Cooperative, Flechas del Sur y San Antonio, Flechas Azules, Atlas Sports Club, Club of United Spaniards, Committee for the Defense of Spanish Liberties, Chicago Cuban Association, Atlas Feminine Club, Feminine Social Club Venus, Club de Madres Mexicanas, Ladies Society of the Mexican Methodist Church, Union Bautiste de Jovenes, Damas Mexicanas, Mexican Women's Club, and Recreational Mexican Club.

(1.) This newspaper should not be confused with the PCM newspaper by the same name (see Carr, Marxism and Communism, 51).