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Black HuntingtonAn Appalachian Story$

Cicero M., III Fain

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780252042591

Published to Illinois Scholarship Online: January 2020

DOI: 10.5622/illinois/9780252042591.001.0001

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(p.237) Index

(p.237) Index

Source:
Black Huntington
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
Abbott, Robert, 128
abolitionist movement, 10–11. See also Underground Railroad
Afro-American Improvement Company, 78
Alabama, 20
America, Richard, 112
Ashland, KY, 73
Baker, Andrew, 79
Banks, John Henry, 65
Barboursville, WV, 2, 73, 75;
during Civil War, 17;
Negro schools in, 100;
Underground Railroad and, 10
Barnes, U. L. Sr., 65
Barnett, Callie, 123
Barnett, Carl, 84, 125, 208n47
Barnett, Carter H., 104–105, 113–114
Barnett, Catherine A. “Kate,” 200n101
Barnett, C. C., 135–136, 213n127
Barnett, Clara Matthews, 136
Barnett, Josephine, 105, 124, 126
Barnett, Nelson, 39–40, 77, 84, 96–98, 103, 140, 190n3, 191n24
Barnett, Nelson Jr., 84, 114
Barnett Hospital, 105, 135–137, 143, 200n101
Belleview Park, 108
“benevolent segregation,” 119–120, 132, 146
benevolent societies, 109–110, 128, 201nn108–109
Berea College, 104
Berkley, Ida, 167n59
Berlin, Ira, 4
Bickley, Ancella, 110
Big Bend Tunnel, 46, 49
Black, William, 58, 77
black churches, 87, 93–99, 128–130, 190n18;
dancing and, 99, 192n39, 193nn40–41;
Ebenezer United Methodist Church, 87, 95, 190n9, 190nn14–15;
maintenance of decorum and, 98–99, 192n38;
marriages and, 97–98;
preachers as civic leaders, 96–97, 114, 191n21;
white attendees, 98, 192n35
black coaches, 125–126
black community leaders, 114–116, 141;
fraternal organizations and, 109–110, 201n108;
home ownership and, 142;
politicians, 202n123;
preachers as, 96–97, 114, 191n21
black enfranchisement, 18, 74, 111, 202n123
black hospitals, 135–137, 211n97, 212n106
black laborers, 68–69, 81, 149–156;
black female workers, 56–57, 67–68, 124, 150–151, 153, 155;
children as, 133;
C&O railroad and, 45–51, 54–55, 58–59, 62, 64–66, 81;
enslaved (see slavery);
in Huntington, 50, 56–58, 62, 64, 66, 68;
labor activism of, 60–64;
lack of occupational opportunity, 68–69, 125;
occupational diversity for, 66–68, 149–151;
occupational statistics, 149–156;
recruitment of, 205n14;
Socialist Party and, 138–139. See also black professional workers
black middle class, 127–128, 137, 140–142, 146;
women and, 122–123, 207n34 (p.238)
black migration, 78, 92, 118, 174nn46–47, 175nn50–52, 206n22;
black enfranchisement and, 74;
into Cabell County, 23, 25, 37–38, 41, 44, 74–75;
C&O Railroad and, 74, 81;
following emancipation, 18–19, 21, 23, 37, 39–40, 159n8, 170n91;
into Huntington, 39, 70–71, 73–75, 78–83, 85, 118, 127, 139;
juvenile crime and, 133;
migrants’ skills, 83–84;
origins of migrants, 75;
social cohesion and, 74;
into West Virginia, 25, 37–38, 44, 59, 78, 81, 118–119, 180n64;
White Sulphur Springs Resort and, 37;
Woodson family, 79–80
black owned bars, 88–91
black-owned newspapers, 113–114, 128, 203n137
black political activity, 111–114, 202n123, 203n127, 206n29;
anti-racist protests, 126–127;
of black women, 122–123, 207n30
black professional workers, 105, 114, 116, 134–135, 140, 194n47;
coaches, 125–126;
doctors and nurses, 135–137;
occupational statistics, 150, 151, 153, 156;
professional women, 123–124;
black property ownership, xii, 77–78, 133–134, 139–142, 144, 146, 185nn19–20, 210n66
Blacks, William, 77
black schools, 99–106, 125–126, 174n37, 193n45, 198n82;
attendance statistics, 101–102, 196n67;
female students and, 101, 196n67, 197n68;
in 19th century, 195n59, 196n62;
role of ex-slaves in founding, 198n82;
school integration and, 99, 157n1, 193n42, 194n47;
black womanhood, 122–123, 207n31, 207n34
black women workers, 56–57, 67–68, 123–124, 150–151, 153, 155, 180n73;
as nurses, 136–137;
school and, 197n68
Blake, S. F., 90
Blassingame, John, 30, 164n43
Blow, Reason and Daniel, 34
Bluefield, WV, 55, 180n70
Bowlin, James B., 20
The Breeze (newspaper), 203n137
Brier, Stephen, 63
Broadnax, Frank, 206n24
Bromley, Emma, 123
Brooks, Lewis, 159n8
Brown, Dorsey, 90
Brown, John P., 85
Brown, Theodore “Doug,” 131
Brown, Walter, 117–118, 135
Brown, William Wells, 162n36
Brown v. the Board of Education (1954), 157n1
Bryant, I. V., 96–100, 126, 191n23, 193n40
Buchanan v. Warley (1917), 142
Buckingham County, 39
Buffington, Peter, 15, 86
Buffington Row, 86, 88
Burlington, OH, x, 9, 12, 93;
Underground Railroad and, 10–11
Burlington 37, x, 6, 95, 161n31
Butler, Daniel, 87
Butler, Moses, 87, 112–113
Byrd, William, 67
Cabell, William, 1
Cabell County, WV, 158n4;
agricultural economy of, 39, 175n55;
black migration into, 23, 25, 37–38, 41, 44, 74–75;
black wealth in, 41–44;
during Civil War, 17, 21, 169n81;
demographics of, 13, 16–17, 19–20, 41–43, 73, 75;
districts of, 41–42;
effect of emancipation on, 38–39, 176nn58–59;
free blacks in, 15–17;
post-war black population of, 21, 41, 171n97, 171n99;
schools in, 194n52, 195n59;
slavery in, 2–4, 8–9, 13, 17, 19, 147, 157n2, 163n37, 168n68;
“whitening” of, 19. See also Huntington, WV
cakewalks, 106
Caldwell, Shep, 206n24
Camden Interstate Railway, 107
Cammack, J. H., 131
Carter, Henry, 87
Carter, Martha, 87
Carter, Mary, 67
cemeteries, 134, 211n85
Ceramic Subdivision, 129–130
Ceredo, WV, 10, 166n55
Chappell, Louis, 49
Charleston, WV, 19, 133, 204n7;
black property ownership in, 142;
fraternal orders in, 107, 110;
Socialist Party in, 212n113
Chavis, William, 10
Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) Railroad, 23–24, 39, 44, 145, 171n5, 178n22, 182n103;
black labor used in construction/opera-tion of, 45–51, 54–55, 58, 62, 64–66, 81, 85, 178n33;
black migration and, 81;
commuter trains and, 66;
deaths of railroad workers, 49–50, 178n23, 178n26;
depression (p.239) of 1873 and, 52–54, 179n52;
economic impact of, 52;
European laborers and, 46, 177n6;
Huntington as western terminus of, 24, 171n5;
segregated facilities, 187n43;
strikes on, 48, 178n34
Chicago Defender, 128
Cincinnati, OH, 76–77, 185n12
citizenship of former Confederates, 23, 170n90
citizenship of former slaves, 18, 23, 170n88
Civil War, 17, 169n81
Clark-Lewis, Elizabeth, 115–116
Clifford, John R., 194n47
Clinton, Constantine, 105
Clyburn, Charley, 121
coal mining, 51–52;
black migration and, 80, 186n31;
labor unions and, 182n95;
mining towns, 200n91;
racial conflict and, 60, 121;
railroads and, 55;
Socialist Party and, 138
Coger, Sydney, 130
Coleman, Amanda Miller, 123
Coleman, James D., 130
Colley, Mathew, 103
Colored Independent Republican Ticket, 113
Colored Masonry, 62
Colored National Labor Union, 61
Colored Orphans’ Home and Industrial School, 108–109
Colored Waiters Alliance, 62
Connally, Beatrice Vinson, 66
Convention of 1872, 74, 110–111, 185n9, 202n115
Cook, Rufus, 71
Cradic, William P., 94
Crafton, Anderson, 95
criminal activity, 88, 189n79;
adjudicated in churches, 192n38;
disproportionate punishment for, 121, 206n24
The Crisis (magazine), 128
Davis, Richard L., 60, 63
Davis, Zelma, 125–126
Davis-DeEulis, Marilyn, 4
Dean, Patsey, 41, 44
Delaney, David, 141–142
Depression of 1873, 52–54, 101, 179nn52–53
Dicher, James, 10
D’lea (enslaved person), 3
Douglass High School, xii, 67, 87, 103–104, 106, 129, 157n1, 198n82;
black coaches at, 125–126;
black teachers at, 125;
founding of, 103;
music program of, 208n34;
school desegregation and, 157n1
Douglass-Huntington High School Black Alumni Reunion, x
Douglass Republican League, 110, 114
Du Bois, W. E. B., 100, 104, 128
Duckworth, Edna, xi, 36–37, 66–67, 89, 131
Dunaway, Wilma, 26, 32
Dunbar Sisters Literacy Society, 123
Dusche, Carmella, 123
Dusenberry, William F., 9, 19
Duvall, C. H., 198n82
Ebenezer United Methodist Church, 87, 95, 190n9, 190nn14–15
election of 1860, 169n82
Eller, Ronald, 47
emancipation, 17–21, 37;
in Cabell County, 38–39;
migration following, 18–19, 21, 23, 37, 39–40, 167n56
Emancipation Day celebrations, 107–108
Engle, Stephen D., 41
Ensign Manufacturing, 60, 64, 181n90
Eubanks, Samuel, 101
Evansville, IL, 77
executions, 121, 206n24
Farr, John, 90
Ferguson, James H., 163n37
Fifteenth Amendment, 18, 170n90
Flick Amendment, 18, 74, 170n90
Foes, Lewis, 95
Ford, Charles, 111
Francisco, Nell Radford, 64, 124
fraternal organizations, 109–110, 128, 201nn108–109
free blacks, 5, 15–16, 35, 160n22, 169nn78–80;
citizenship of, 18;
re-enslavement of, 5–6, 15–16, 160nn19–20;
at White Sulphur Springs resort, 34–35
Fry, Joshua, 159n18
Fry, Walker, 6
Fugitive Slave Act, 165n52
Fuller, J. M., 130
Fullerton, Lewis, 16
Gallia County, OH, 73–74, 164n47
Garrett, Billy “Doc,” ix
Garrison, Memphis T., 51
Genovese, Eugene D., 33
Georgia, 20
Gillard, Jenkins, 112
Golden Rule Association, 205n19
Gordon, W. H., 105
Grand Lodge of the Knights of Pythias, 110 (p.240)
Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, 109
Graves, Sam, 89, 132
“Great Flood of 1884,” 78
Great Kanawah valley, 26
Great Railroad Strike of 1877, 60
Greenbottom Plantation, 1–5, 7, 13–15, 159n18;
slave churches at, 12;
slave literacy at, 3–4, 8, 21
Greenbriar County:
black migration and, 37;
demographics of, 36–37;
slavery in, 173n22
Griffith, John Lewis, 79
Gutman, Herbert, 60
Guyandotte, 2, 13, 24, 42–43, 73, 75;
C&O railroad and, 172n6;
during Civil War, 17, 169n81;
effect of emancipation on, 38;
Methodist Church in, 163n37;
Negro schools in, 100;
Underground Railroad and, 10
Guyan Valley Division rail line, 107
Haley, Mary, 16
Hamilton, A. W. (Alex), 46
Hannah, John, 4
Hartshorn Memorial College, 124
Hatchett, J. B., 126
Haymarket Riot, 60
Hazelwood, H. D., 145
Henry, John, 46, 51, 68, 176n5, 178n36
Hill, Cecil, 64
Hill, Dandridge, 57, 67, 112, 203n127
Hill, James L., 109
Hine, Darlene Clark, 135–136
Holderby, Susan, 13
Holderby Addition, 129–130
Holley, Caroline, 67, 77, 103
Holley, Robert, 103
Honky Tonk Saloon, 88–91
Hopkins, Millie, 56
Household of Ruth, 109, 128
Housel, Jacqueline A, 129–130
Howard, “Uncle Dan,” 119
Hughes, George, 112
Hughes, Revella E., 123–125, 207n42
Huntington, Collis P., 24, 44, 46, 49, 171n5;
depression of 1873 and, 52–54;
influence of, 82;
loss of C&O Railroad, 54
Huntington, WV, xi-xii, 84, 106, 118, 145–146;
author’s experience of, x;
black cemeteries in, 134, 211n85;
black churches in, 94–99, 128–130, 201n109;
black community leaders in, 114–116, 134–135;
black female residents of, 56–57, 76, 123–124;
black hospitals in, 135–137;
black laborers in, 50, 56–58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 82;
black middle class in, 127–128, 137, 140–142, 146;
black migration into, 39, 70–71, 73–75, 78–83, 85, 118, 127, 139;
black owned bars in, 88–91;
black owned businesses, listed, 143, 213n127;
black-owned newspapers in, 113–114;
black property ownership in, xii, 77–78, 133–134, 139–142, 185nn19–20;
black residential neighborhoods of, 78, 85–88, 118, 128–131, 133, 139–140;
black schools in, 100–106, 125, 196n62, 198n82 (see also Douglass High School);
city parks in, 107–108;
crime in, 88–91, 132–133;
demographics of, 73, 75–76, 113, 118, 132, 145–146, 214n134;
depression of 1873 and, 52–53;
discrimination against black residents, 91;
economy of, 52, 56–57, 73, 82, 200n90;
founding of, 24–25, 44;
fraternal orders in, 109–110, 201nn108–109;
growth of, 83, 118, 141, 145–146, 204n7;
Jim Crow attitudes in, xii, 116, 122, 139, 145–146;
Jim Crow laws and, 82–83, 122, 128, 145;
labor activism in, 60–62;
labor unions in, 63–64;
layout and construction of, 71–73;
legal challenges to segregation in, 144–145;
lynchings in, 91, 121–122, 206n25;
public transportation in, 107, 184n3;
recreational spaces in, 106–107;
residential segregation in, 76–77, 118, 128–132, 134–135, 139–142, 144–145;
Socialist Party in, 137–139;
as steamboat port, 172n8;
use of public spaces within, 106, 199n86, 199n89;
as western terminus of C&O railroad, 24, 171n5, 214n134
Huntington Knights of Pythias Hall, 110
Hyder, Jennie, 190n14
Illinois, 5
Indiana, 5, 160n22
Ironton, OH, 73, 107–108
Jackson, Gerald, 63
Jackson, Pat, 65
James, Frank, 196n62
James, Mrs. William O., 67–68
James, Susie, 101, 196nn63–65
James, William F., 101, 102–103, 196nn63–65
James, William O., 57, 67, 77, 87, 112, 202n124;
Butler and, 113;
as school teacher, 100
James River and Kanawah Turnpike, 2, 11, 26, 158n6 (p.241)
Jasper, “Grandpa” Jackson, 57
Jasper, James Murray, 57
Jenkins, Albert Gallatin, 2, 4, 14–15, 164n44, 166n55
Jenkins, Henry, 206n24
Jenkins, Janetta, 12
Jenkins, Thomas Jefferson, 20
Jenkins, Trent R., 103–104
Jenkins, William A., 1, 4, 12, 14–15, 20, 159n14, 164n44
Jim Crow laws, 21, 82–83, 122;
Jim Crow attitudes in Huntington, xii, 116, 122, 139, 145–146;
relative lack of in WV, 82, 106, 121–122, 146;
residential segregation and, 118, 146;
travel and, 128
John Henry myth, 51, 68, 176n5, 178n36
Johnson, Charles S., 120
Johnson, Guy, 51
Johnson, John, 47
Johnson, Lula, 123
Johnson, Maude, 196n62
Johnson, Walter, 14–15
Jones, Anna E., 144
Jones, Chink, 196n62
Jones, J. McHenry, 161n33
Jones, Joseph, 7–8, 161n33
Jones, Julia, 196n62
Jones, Oliver, 79
juvenile crime, 132–133
Kanawah and New River coalfield, 55
Kanawah Valley salt mines, 46, 168n67
Kelley, Jane, 56
Kentucky:
escape of slaves to, 169n83;
free blacks in, 160n22;
racial composition of, 20
Kessler Hospital, 117, 135
Kirby, Jack Temple, 82–83
Kitchen Ball at White Sulphur Springs, Virginia (Mayr, 1838), 29, 31
Knights of Labor, 61, 63, 182n95
Knights of Pythias, 110, 128, 201n108
Ku Klux Klan, 214n129
labor activism, 59–61;
black workers and, 60–64, 182n98, 183n109;
labor unions, 61–64, 182n95, 183nn109–110;
racial conflict and, 59–60;
strikes, 48, 53, 60, 178n34, 179n51, 181n89
Lacy, Mary, 1–5, 15, 20–21, 43
Laing, James T., 81
Lawrence County, OH, 73–74
Layne, Emma Anderson “Auntie Em,” 13
Lees, Thomas L., 162n37
Lewis, Albert D., 57, 65, 79, 94, 96–97
Lewis, Charlene M. Boyers, 33
Lewis, Charles Cameron, 14
Lewis, Earl, 62
Liggins, James, 101, 196n62
literacy, 79;
of black women, 56–57;
of slaves, 3–4, 8, 12, 21, 159n11
Loewen, James, 93
Logan, Rayford, 93
Long, Robert, 100, 111–112, 115
Louis, Joe, 178n36
Louisville, KY, 77, 120, 141–142
lynchings, 91, 119–122, 189n80, 205n20, 206n25;
anti-lynching laws, 120, 205n21;
black response to, 205n19
Macedonia Missionary Baptist Church, 93–94, 97
Mangrum, J. A., 77
Manson, Si, 77
marriages, 18, 81, 97–98, 203n126
Marrie, Nannie V., 108
Marshall College, 67, 126
Martin, William, 206n24
Maryland, 20
Mason, Clairborne R., 47, 177nn12–13
Matheus, John William, 25
Matthews, Edith E. Perkins, 28
Mayr, Christian Friedrich, 29, 31
McClain, C. S. and Mary E., 134
McClain, “Diamond Teeth Mary,” 209n58
McDaniels, Ed, 88–92
McDowell County, 38, 202n123
McGhee, Charles E., 108–109
McGhee, Lucy, 123
McKinney, William T., 67, 87, 103, 196n62, 197n76, 201n108
McQueen, Lottie, 132
Meadows, A. D., 145
Medison, Dave, 145
Merchant, W. T., 87
Methodist Church, 163n37. See also Ebenezer United Methodist Church
Miller, Ike, 112
Miller, Isaac, 113
Mitchell, Mattie, 67
Mitchell, Mrs. Walter, 167n65
Moore, Lewis B., 127
Moore, Martin, 13
Morgan, J. P., 54 (p.242)
Morgan, William, 95
Morris, Benjamin and Mandalay, 41–42
Morris, Charles, 11, 167n59
Morris, George and Nancy, 43
Morris, John, 13, 15
Morris, Samuel, 41
Morton, Jeremiah, 35
Moss, Joseph W., 106
Mt. Olivet Baptist Association, 97
Mt. Olive Baptist Church, xii, 94–96
Myers, Walter, 83–84, 107–108, 134, 140, 144
Myers, Walter Sr., 140
National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), xii;
White v. White (1929) and, 144–145
Negro schools, 43
New River valley, 25, 179n39
Nicholas, Wilson Cary, 159n18
nitroglycerin, 48–49
Nordhoff, Charles, 47
Norfolk and Western (N&W) Railroad, 55, 61, 81
North Carolina, 20
Nutter, T. G., 145, 200n91
occupational mobility, 66–67
occupational statistics, 149–156
Ohio:
black laborers in, 66;
free blacks in, 5, 160n22;
slave-hunting in, 166n53;
slaves escaping to, 10–11, 164n47
Ohio River:
as border between free and slave states, 5–6, 10, 161n25, 167n56, 169n83
Ohio Valley Trades and Labor Assembly, 63
Overstreet, Lee, 89
Page, Lewis (John), 15, 168n77
Parker, Asbury, 7, 11
Parker, John P., 165n52
Payne, Christopher, 113, 202n123
Perkins, Belle, 56
Perkins, R. J., 79, 97
Peters, W. S., 101
Phipps, George, 67
Pioneer Press, 194n47
Pittsburgh, PA, 77
Pittsburgh Courier, 128
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), 83
Pocahontas coalfield, 55
“polite racism,” 119–120, 142
political agitation, 40–41, 93, 126;
Convention of 1872 and, 110–111;
in Louisville, 142;
Socialist Party and, 138–139
poll taxes, 160n22
Portsmouth, OH, 73
Potts. J. H., 131
Prillerman, Byrd, 198n82
property ownership. See black property ownership
Providence Regular Missionary Baptist Association, 93–94
Radford, James, 66
Radford, William “Anderson,” 40, 65–66
Ragland, Henry Clay, 119
Rau, Kate, 144
Reconstruction era, 70
recruitment of black workers, 47, 119, 205n14
Reed, Temperance, 10
regional development, phases of, 157n1
representation, freehold vs. manhood, 162n37
Republican Party, 74, 112–113, 202n123, 206n29;
school desegregation and, 193n42
residential segregation, 213n125;
in 19th century Huntington, 76, 134;
in 20th century Huntington, 118, 128–132, 139–141, 144;
benefits of, 211n87;
“benevolent segregation,” 119–120, 132, 146;
legal challenges to, 135, 142, 144–145;
self-segregation, 140;
subdivisions and, 213n124
Reynolds, Isaac, 82
Richardson, Lewis, 50
Riddle, Anne Eliza, 22, 36, 40
Riddle, James Buchanan, 79, 104
Riddle, John Morton, 79, 104
Riddle, Robert, 22
Riddle, Robert D., 36
Ringo, Charles, 91, 122, 132
Ritter Park, 108
Rose, Anderson, 20, 43
Rose, Mary Charlott Perkins, 28
Routh, Matilda Jane, 33
Rowe, Jim, 11
Rucker, Edgar Pl, 120
Sanders, Sampson, 6, 161n27
Saudindge, W. H., 95
Schuyler, George S., 144
Scott, Boston, 103
Scott, D. B., 15
Scott, George, 126 (p.243)
Scott, J. W., 61, 65–66, 70, 77, 101, 105, 127–128;
black newspapers and, 113–114, 127, 203n137;
black property ownership and, 133–134, 141;
political activity of, 126;
self-help philosophy of, 141
scrip, 53, 179n52
Seals, Charles, 85, 113
self-help philosophy, 127, 140–141, 146
Shafer, John, 95, 176n71
Shaw, Stephanie, 123
Shelby, Almedia Duckworth, 67–68
Shelton, James, 164n44
Silas Green Company, 135, 211n93
Simmons, Carrie, 123, 128
Simmons, Conwelzie, 11
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 79, 130, 210n67
skilled black workers, 67
slavery, 147;
in Appalachia, 158n3, 174n38;
in Cabell County, 2–4, 8–9, 13, 17, 19, 147, 157n2, 163n37, 168n68;
capitalism and, 159n15;
“chattel principle” of, 14–15;
during Civil War, 17;
demographics of, 13–14, 19, 36, 168n67;
discrimination faced by former slaves, 170n85;
emancipation of slaves, 17–20;
enslaved persons’ resistance to, 9–11;
free blacks and, 5–6, 15–16;
Fugitive Slave Act, 165n52;
at Greenbottom Plantation, 13–15, 159n18;
in Greenbriar County, 173n22;
at Kanawah Valley salt mines, 46, 168n67;
labor performed by slaves, 15, 28, 174n40;
literacy and, 3–4, 8, 12, 21, 159n11;
manumission of slaves, 5–6, 160nn20–21, 161n27;
Methodist Church and, 163n37;
political representation and, 162n37;
re-enslavement, 5, 160n19;
religious observance of slaves, 9, 12, 174n38;
runaway slaves, 10–11, 14, 164n44, 165n52, 166n53, 166n55, 167n56;
selling of slaves’ families, 13–15;
sexual violence against enslaved women, 15, 20, 35, 168n77;
slave population by county, 19, 36;
steamboats and, 7–8, 161n33, 162n33;
subcultures of resistance and, 32–33;
transportation systems and, 26;
trickster figure, 173n25;
violence against slaves, 5, 15;
westward migration and, 25–26, 37, 159n8;
at White Sulphur Springs resort, 27–37, 173n32, 174n40
Smith, Lloyd G., 125
Smith, Robert S. B., 95
Smith, Rush, 66, 131
Smith, Walter A., 125
Smith, W. T., 101
Socialist and Labor Star, 138
Socialist Party, 137–139, 212n107, 212n113
South Carolina, 20
Spencer, Susan, x, 6
sports leagues, 107;
black coaches of, 125–126
Stanford, Leland, 24
Starks, Samuel W., 110
Stealey, John E., 8
steamboats, 7–8, 161n33, 162n36, 172n8
Stephens, John, 87
Stewart, Mina E., 126
Strauder v. West Virginia, 91
strikes, 48, 53, 60, 178n34, 179n51, 181n89
subcultures of resistance, 32–33
Sullivan, Charles Kenneth, 45
“sundown towns,” 121, 206n27
Swallow, Hiram H., 8
Swann-Wright, Dianne, 39
Talbott, Forrest, 17
Tarr, Edward, 25
Taylor, Henry Louis, 76, 185n12
Taylor, Nikki M., 89, 164n48
teaching certification, 195n62
Tennessee, 20
Thayer, Eli, 10–11, 166n55
Thirteenth Amendment, 18
Thomas, William, 67
Thompson, John J., 74
Thompson, Maggie A. W., 108
Thurston, S. A., 126
Tillman, Ben “Pitchfork,” 126
tobacco production, 39
trickster figure, 173n25
Trotter, Joe W., 59
Tucker, Elijah and Virginia, 44
Tucker, Jenny, 94
Turner, Belle, 103
Turner, Marcellus, 65
Twyman, James “Pap,” 6
Underground Railroad, 5, 10–11;
African Americans’ centrality in, 164n48, 165n51, 165n52;
benevolent societies and, 201n109
United Mine Workers, 61, 63, 183n109
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 54
Vinson, Frank, 66
Virginia:
lynchings in, 189n80;
racial composition of, 13, 20, 36;
WV secession from, 23. See also West Virginia (p.244)
Virginia Central Railroad Company, 46
Virginia Constitutional Convention, 162n37
Wade, Howard D., 38
Walcott, Byron A., 108
Walker, W. P., 98
Washington, Booker T., 25, 34, 64, 187n45
Washington Place, 131–132, 139–140
Watson, Maggie, 56
Wayne County, 58
West Virginia:
absence of Jim Crow laws in, 82–83;
“benevolent segregation” in, 119, 146;
black migration into, 25, 37–38, 44, 59, 78, 81, 118–119, 180n64;
black schools in, 99, 198n82;
coal mining in, 51–52, 55;
constitution of, 110–111, 202n115;
demographics of, 118–119;
depression of 1873 and, 53–54;
fraternal orders in, 110;
labor strife in, 60;
labor unions in, 63–64, 183n110;
legal challenges to segregation in, 144–145;
lynchings in, 91, 120–121, 205n20;
political representation and, 162n37;
race relations in, 120–121;
racial composition of, 13, 18–20, 23, 118–119, 167n56, 171n93;
railroad construction in, 45–51;
secession from Virginia, 23;
Socialist Party in, 137–139, 212n107, 212n113;
urban growth in, 204n7;
white/European immigration to, 59–60. See also Cabell County; Huntington, WV
West Virginia Collegiate Institute, 198n82
West Virginia Colored Orphans’ Home, 108, 200n101, 201n105
West Virginia Spokesman, 113–114
West Virginia Teachers’ Association, 198n82
Wheelersburg, OH, 121
Wheeling, WV, 63–64, 204n7
White, H. B., 144
White, Lewis and Cora, 144
White, William R., 99
White Sulphur Springs resort, 26–37, 172n18;
black migration and, 37;
during Civil War, 36–37;
culture of slaves at, 27–36, 173n32;
free blacks at, 34–35
white supremacy, 119
White v. White (1929), 135, 144–145
Wickham, W. C., 53
Wilberforce University, 174n37
Wiley, Waitman T., 18
Wilkins, Tom, 57
Williams, Eph, 135
Williams, William, 13
Williamson-Logan coalfield, 55
Wilson, Charles A., 112
Wilson, Charles R., 62
Wilson, George, 66, 195n61
Wilson, Theodore, 101
Wilson, Thomas, 103
Winding Gulf coalfield, 55
Witcher, Stephen, 16
Withrow, Harry, 121
Woods, Hugh O., 120
Woodson, Carter G., 40, 55, 79–80, 101, 105, 135, 204n139;
education of, 103–104
Woodson, James Henry, 40, 104, 115
Woodson, Robert, 55, 79–80
work camps, 47
Wright, George C., 119–120
Yancey, James Henry, 49